วันเสาร์ที่ 12 กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. 2554

Adjective clause, Adjective phrase.

Examples of Adjective Clauses
Now you should be ready for what you asked for: “example adjective clauses”.
Adjective clauses can start with a relative pronoun and some common ones are: who, whom, that, or which. Also, relative adverbs can begin the clause and these include: when, where, and why. Adjective clauses do not need commas unless the information they give is additional and not essential. In other words, the clause does not change the basic meaning of the sentence.
Here are several examples of sentences with the adjective clauses underlined:
1.Pizza, which most people love, is not very healthy.
2.The people whose names are on the list will go to camp.
3.Grandpa remembers the old days when there was no television
4.Fruit that is grown organically is expensive.
5.Students who are intelligent get good grades.
6.I know someone whose father served in World War II.
7.Making noise when he eats is the main reason why Sue does not like to eat with her brother
8. enjoy telling people about Janet Evanovich whose latest book was fantastic.
9."He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead." - Albert Einstein
10.“Those who do not complain are never pitied.” - Jane Austen
11.“People demand freedom of speech to make up for the freedom of thought which they avoid.” - Søren Kierkegaard

What Is an Adjective Phrase?

Now that you know the definitions of nouns, pronouns, phrases, and adjectives, you will better understand the answer to “What is an adjective phrase?” Adjective phrases act just like adjectives. They modify, describe, or give more information about a noun or pronoun. Some examples are: without a penny, of great importance, devoid of life, covered with dirt, running in the park, and man of the hour.
Some adjective phrases modify nouns or noun phrases. Following are some sentences with the phrases underlined:

1.The very small kitten jumped at the big dog.

2.The cost of the car was way too high.

3.The man covered with sweat, trudged his way home.

4.Something in the corner was moving.

5.The big bug under the blanket is moving towards me.

Other adjective phrases modify the predicate of the sentence. Here are some examples:

1.Extra buttons came with the coat.

2.Gremlins cause mischief inside of machines.

3.We were saddened by the news of his demise.

4.The brownies smell deliciously sweet.

5.I was delighted that he was chosen.

Adjective phrases can also modify objects and will follow the word they are modifying. Examples are: 

1.She wanted to paint her room lemony yellow.

2.My new kitten makes me very happy.

3.I sometimes pity people living in large cities.

4.We are collecting money for children born with heart defects.

5.They were proud of their team winning the championship.


Adverbs are words that modify
·         A verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?)
·         An adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)
·         Another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)
As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:

·         That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.

If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:

·         When this class is over, we're going to the movies.

When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as
 an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time, modifying the verb):

·         He went to the movies.

·         She works on holidays.

·         They lived in Canada during the war.

And Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):

·         She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.

·         The senator ran to catch the bus.

But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:

·         He calls his mother as often as possible. Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we would say that "the students showed a really wonderful attitude" and that "the students showed a wonderfully casual attitude" and that "my professor is really tall, but not "He ran real fast."
Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.

·         Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.

·         The student who reads fastest will finish first.

We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:

·         With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.

·         The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.

·         She worked less confidently after her accident.

·         That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.

The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or equality: "He can't run as fast as his sister."
A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In certain cases, the two forms have different meanings:

·         He arrived late.

·         Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.

In most cases, however, the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for casual situations:

·         She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers.

·         He did wrong by her.

·         He spoke sharp, quick, and to the point.

Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to something. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can emphasize, amplify, or downtown. Here are some examples:
·         Emphasizers:
o    I really don't believe him.

o    He literally wrecked his mother's car.

o    She simply ignored me.

o    They're going to be late, for sure.

·         Amplifiers:
o    The teacher completely rejected her proposal.

o    I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings.

o    They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.

o    I so wanted to go with them.

o    We know this city well.

·         Downtoners:
o    I kind of like this college.

o    Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.

o    His mother mildly disapproved his actions.

o    We can improve on this to some extent.

o    The boss almost quit after that.

o    The school was all but ruined by the storm.

Adverbs (as well as adjectives) in their various degrees can be accompanied by premodifiers:

·         She runs very fast.

·         We're going to run out of material all the faster

Kinds of Adverbs

Adverbs of Manner
1.She moved slowly and spoke quietly.

Adverbs of Place
1.She has lived on the island all her life. 
2. She still lives there now.


Adverbs of Frequency
1.She takes the boat to the mainland every day.

2.She often goes by herself.

Adverbs of Time


1.She tries to get back before dark.
2. it’s starting to get dark now.

3. She finished her tea first.
4.She left early.

Adverbs of Purpose

1.She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the
2.She shops in several stores to get the best buys.

Positions of Adverbs

One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to

 move around in a sentence. Adverbs of manner

are particularly flexible in this regard.
·         Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation.

·         The minister solemnly addressed her congregation.

·         The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.

The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:

·         Before the main verb: I never get up before nine o'clock.
·         Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my brother without a good reason.
·         Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home.

Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the main verb:
·         He finally showed up for batting practice.
·         She has recently retired.

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